Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder manifesting by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics, lasting longer than a year, with the age of onset less than 18 years [ 1 ].
In addition to tics, many patients with GTS exhibit a variety of mental disorders and behavioral symptoms such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), poor impulse control, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, depression, temper outbursts, rage attacks, self-injuries, and inappropriate sexual behavior.
Supporting an immunopathogenic influence, elevated concentrations of Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 12 (IL-12) have been detected in patients with GTS [ 2 ].
In addition, positive oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid have been found in 38 % of GTS patients [ 3 ].
This strongly suggests a pathological intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in GTS, because positive OCBs are found in only 3 % of the general population.
However, the role of autoantibodies in GTS remains unclear, since contradictory results have been found [ 4 ].